How to Apply for a Green Card on F1 Visa


Are you an international student studying in the United States on an F1 visa? If so, you may be interested in applying for a green card to pursue long-term opportunities in the country. Obtaining a green card, also known as lawful permanent residency, allows you to live and work in the United States indefinitely. This article will guide you through the process of applying for a green card while on an F1 visa, providing you with the necessary information and steps to follow. So, let’s delve into the details and explore how you can make your dream of obtaining a green card a reality.

What is F1 Visa?

The F1 visa is a non-immigrant visa category that allows foreign students to study in the United States. It is specifically designed for individuals who want to pursue academic programs, including degree programs, language courses, or vocational training, at accredited educational institutions in the U.S. The F1 visa is granted to students who have been accepted by a U.S. educational institution and intend to maintain full-time student status during their stay.

As an international student, you are likely familiar with the F1 visa, which allows you to pursue academic studies in the United States. The F1 visa is typically granted to individuals enrolled in accredited colleges, universities, language schools, or other academic institutions. It is important to note that while studying on an F1 visa, you are considered a non-immigrant and are expected to return to your home country upon completion of your program. However, if you wish to stay in the United States permanently, you can explore the option of obtaining a green card.

Eligibility Criteria for a Green Card

To apply for a green card while on an F1 visa, you need to meet certain eligibility criteria. The general requirements include:

  • Having a valid F1 visa and maintaining lawful status
  • Demonstrating a qualifying relationship to a U.S. citizen or a permanent resident
  • Meeting the eligibility requirements of the chosen green card category
  • Being admissible to the United States (free from any immigration violations or criminal offenses)

Selecting the Appropriate Green Card Category

There are various categories under which you can apply for a green card. The most common options include family-based immigration and employment-based immigration. Family-based immigration allows immediate relatives (spouses, parents, and unmarried children under 21) of U.S. citizens to apply for a green card. Employment-based immigration, on the other hand, is suitable for individuals with job offers or exceptional skills in specific fields.

Labor Certification (if applicable)

If you are applying for an employment-based green card, you may need to go through the labor certification process. This involves your prospective employer obtaining certification from the U.S. Department of Labor to verify that hiring a foreign worker will not adversely affect job opportunities for U.S. workers.

Filing the Form I-140 or Form I-130

Depending on the selected green card category, you will need to file either Form I-140 (Employment-Based) or Form I-130 (Family-Based). These forms serve as petitions to establish the basis for your green card application. You must carefully complete the forms, provide accurate information, and include all supporting documentation.

Adjustment of Status vs. Consular Processing

As an F1 visa holder, you have two options for applying for a green card: adjustment of status or consular processing. Adjustment of status allows you to apply for a green card while remaining in the United States. Consular processing, on the other hand, requires you to apply for a green card at a U.S. embassy or consulate in your home country.

Preparing the Required Documentation

When applying for a green card, you must submit various documents to establish your eligibility. These documents may include:

  • Passport
  • Form I-94 (Arrival/Departure Record)
  • Form I-20 (Certificate of Eligibility for Nonimmigrant Student Status)
  • Financial documentation
  • Birth certificate
  • Marriage certificate (if applicable)
  • Employment offer letter (if applicable)
  • Recommendation letters (if applicable)
  • Affidavit of Support (Form I-864)
  • And more, depending on your specific circumstances

Medical Examination and Vaccinations

As part of the green card application process, you are required to undergo a medical examination by a designated civil surgeon. The examination ensures that you do not have any communicable diseases that pose a public health risk. Additionally, you may need to provide proof of vaccination for certain diseases as per the U.S. vaccination requirements.

Biometrics Appointment

After submitting your green card application, you will receive a notice for a biometrics appointment. During this appointment, your fingerprints, photograph, and signature will be collected for identity verification purposes. It is crucial to attend the appointment as scheduled to avoid delays in the application process.

The Interview Process

Once your application is processed, you will be scheduled for an interview with a U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) officer. The interview is an opportunity for the officer to assess the credibility of your application and determine if you meet all the necessary requirements. It is important to prepare thoroughly for the interview and bring all the required documents to support your case.

Conditional Green Card (if applicable)

In some cases, you may receive a conditional green card, which is valid for two years. This typically happens when you obtain a green card based on a marriage that is less than two years old at the time of approval. To remove the conditions on your green card, you will need to file a petition to remove those conditions within the 90-day period before the expiration of your conditional green card.

Finalizing the Green Card Process

Once your green card application is approved, you will receive a welcome notice and the actual green card will be mailed to your provided address. It is crucial to review the green card for accuracy and report any errors or discrepancies immediately.

Maintaining F1 Status during the Application

While your green card application is pending, it is important to maintain your F1 status. This includes attending classes, complying with the rules and regulations of your academic institution, and ensuring your I-20 form is valid at all times. Failure to maintain your F1 status can negatively impact your green card application.

Seeking Professional Guidance

Applying for a green card while on an F1 visa can be a complex process. It is highly recommended to seek professional guidance from an experienced immigration attorney or an authorized representative. They can provide personalized advice, ensure your application is accurate and complete, and assist you throughout the entire process.


Obtaining a green card while on an F1 visa opens up a world of opportunities for international students wishing to pursue their dreams in the United States. By understanding the process and following the necessary steps, you can increase your chances of success. Remember to maintain your F1 status, gather all required documentation, and seek professional guidance when needed. With determination and proper preparation, you can navigate the path to a green card and embark on a new chapter in your life.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Can I apply for a green card while on an F1 visa?

Yes, you can apply for a green card while on an F1 visa if you meet the eligibility criteria and follow the necessary steps.

2. What are the eligibility criteria for a green card on an F1 visa?

The eligibility criteria include maintaining lawful F1 status, having a qualifying relationship to a U.S. citizen or permanent resident, meeting the requirements of the chosen green card category, and being admissible to the United States.

3. Should I choose adjustment of status or consular processing?

The choice between adjustment of status and consular processing depends on your individual circumstances. Consulting with an immigration attorney can help you determine the most suitable option for your situation.

4. How long does the green card application process take?

The processing time can vary depending on various factors, such as the green card category and the workload of the USCIS. It is important to check the USCIS website for the most up-to-date processing times.

5. Can I work in the United States while my green card application is pending?

In some cases, you may be eligible to apply for an employment authorization document (EAD) while your green card application is pending. Consult with an immigration attorney to understand the options available to you.

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